Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Peter Molnar

Peter Molnar

Research Interests

I teach a little and carry out research in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado. I was trained as a seismologist, but most of my current work addresses either geodynamics or climate. I study how mountain ranges are built and how the dynamics of flow within the mantle affects the earth’s surface. I also study how manifestations of geodynamic processes, like high mountain ranges and plateaus or ocean gateways, have affected climate on geologic time scales.


Current Research

The Great American Biotic Interchange and the Ice Age

I am pursuing the Great American Biotic Interchange, an event that occurred in pulses since the Ice Age began and ice first covered Canada approximately 2.5 million years ago (Ma). In a series of perhaps four waves, large animals, mostly mammals, crossed from North to South or South to North America. Familiar examples are llamas and alpacas that evolved from now extinct North American camelids and thrive in South America, and armadillos and anteaters that came north from South America. All passed through the Isthmus of Panama, but virtually none would do so today; most are thought to prefer grassy savannas to jungles with snakes, crocodiles, and mosquitoes. Controversy has surrounded the reasons behind the Great American Biotic Interchange, with some arguing for an emergence of the Isthmus of Panama at 2.5-4 Ma, and others thinking that the Isthmus has been in place since 10-15 Ma (as recent evidence suggests), and that the key was cooling and aridification of Panama when large ice sheets expanded across Canada and as far south as St. Louis [Molnar, 2008]. An analysis of both different fossil taxa and molecular lineages suggests that except for sloths and a few rodents, most large mammals passed through Panama after 2.5 Ma [Bacon et al., 2016]. With Argentine and North American colleagues, I am trying to pursue this by dating precisely the first appearances of various taxa that cross from North America to South America.

Ice ages and their influence on the Great American Biotic Interchange. A: Map of the region. B: Representative mammal species that migrated through Panama (anteater, elephant-like gomphothere, and porcupine). C: Datasets suggesting a drying environment at 2.5 Ma, shown by δ18O from benthic foraminifera, a proxy for global temperature, smoothed with a Gaussian window of 200 ky; eustatic sea level; and magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for ice rafted debris and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. D: Mammal migration estimated from fossil and molecular data, plotted based on occurrence data binned by million year intervals and calculated for abundance and diversity. Dashed line at 2.5 Ma reflects onset of Ice Ages. (From Bacon et al. [2016].)

View Publications

  • Mora-Paez, H, DJ Mencin, P Molnar, H Diederix, L Cardona-Piedrahita, JR Pelaez-Gaviria and Y Corchuelo-Cuervo (2016), GPS velocities and the construction of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 43 (16) 8407-8416, issn: 0094-8276, ids: DX5TC, doi: 10.1002/2016GL069795
  • Bilham, R, T Niebauer, C Pearson and P Molnar (2016), Changes in absolute gravity 2000-2015, South Island, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys. Version: 1 59 (1) 176-186, issn: 0028-8306, ids: DP0EG, doi: 10.1080/00288306.2015.1108922
  • Zietlow, DW, PH Molnar and AF Sheehan (2016), Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 121 (6) 4427-4445, issn: 2169-9313, ids: DT6XD, doi: 10.1002/2015JB012624
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan, P Molnar and TM Marchitto (2016), Reduced-dimension reconstruction of the equatorial Pacific SST and zonal wind fields over the past 10,000years using Mg/Ca and alkenone records. Paleoceanography Version: 1 31 (7) 928-952, issn: 0883-8305, ids: DW2NR, doi: 10.1002/2016PA002948
  • Chang, H, LY Li, P Molnar and NA Niemi (2016), Activation of a Minor Graben and Pull-Apart Basin Just East of Bukadaban during the 2001 Kunlun Earthquake (M-w 7.8). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 106 (6) 2922-2926, issn: 0037-1106, ids: ED6BG, doi: 10.1785/0120160135
  • Bacon, CD, P Molnar, A Antonelli, AJ Crawford, C Montes and MC Vallejo-Pareja (2016), Quaternary glaciation and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Geol. Version: 1 44 (5) 375-378, issn: 0091-7613, ids: DK4HG, doi: 10.1130/G37624.1
  • Cronin, TW, KA Emanuel and P Molnar (2015), Island precipitation enhancement and the diurnal cycle in radiative-convective equilibrium. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 141 (689) 1017-1034, issn: 0035-9009, ids: CL2VW, doi: 10.1002/qj.2443
  • Molnar, P (2015), Gravitational instability of mantle lithosphere and core complexes. Tectonics Version: 1 34 (3) 478-487, issn: 0278-7407, ids: CH2DY, doi: 10.1002/2014TC003808
  • Molnar, P and TW Cronin (2015), Growth of the Maritime Continent and its possible contribution to recurring Ice Ages. Paleoceanography Version: 1 30 (3) 196-225, issn: 0883-8305, ids: CH2EG, doi: 10.1002/2014PA002752
  • Ge, WP, P Molnar, ZK Shen and Q Li (2015), Present-day crustal thinning in the southern and northern Tibetan Plateau revealed by GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 42 (13) 5227-5235, issn: 0094-8276, ids: CN8LG, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064347
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan and PH Molnar (2015), An assessment of the mean annual precipitation needed to sustain Lake Sambhar in Rajasthan, India, during mid-Holocene time. Holocene Version: 1 25 (12) 1923-1934, issn: 0959-6836, ids: CW8NI, doi: 10.1177/0959683615596817
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan and P Molnar (2015), Subseasonal variations in spatial signatures of ENSO on the Indian summer monsoon from 1901 to 2009. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 120 (16) 8165-8185, issn: 2169-897X, ids: CU3KX, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023184
  • England, P and P Molnar (2015), Rheology of the lithosphere beneath the central and western Tien Shan. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (5) 3803-3823, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CK7YV, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011733
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2015), Effects of a low-viscosity lower crust on topography and gravity at convergent mountain belts during gravitational instability of mantle lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (1) 537-551, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CC2CH, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011349
  • Molnar, P, PC England and CH Jones (2015), Mantle dynamics, isostasy, and the support of high terrain. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (3) 1932-1957, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CG3EF, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011724
  • Collins, JA and P Molnar (2014), Pn anisotropy beneath the South Island of New Zealand and implications for distributed deformation in continental lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (10) 7745-7767, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AU1GH, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011233
  • Zhang, HP, PZ Zhang, JD Champagnac, P Molnar, RS Anderson, E Kirby, WH Craddock and SF Liu (2014), Pleistocene drainage reorganization driven by the isostatic response to deep incision into the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Geol. Version: 1 42 (4) 303-306, issn: 0091-7613, ids: AD4TT, doi: 10.1130/G35115.1
  • Zietlow, DW, AF Sheehan, PH Molnar, MK Savage, G Hirth, JA Collins and BH Hager (2014), Upper mantle seismic anisotropy at a strike-slip boundary: South Island, New Zealand. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (2) 1020-1040, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AD2AK, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010676
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2014), Combining regional moist static energy and ENSO for forecasting of early and late season Indian monsoon rainfall and its extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 41 (12) 4323-4331, issn: 0094-8276, ids: AN0SM, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060429
  • Mestas-Nunez, AM and P Molnar (2014), A mechanism for freshening the Caribbean Sea in pre-Ice Age time. Paleoceanography Version: 1 29 (6) 508-517, issn: 0883-8305, ids: AN5VZ, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002515
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2013), Signatures of Tibetan Plateau heating on Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (3) 1170-1178, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129LC, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50124
  • Yuan, DY, WP Ge, ZW Chen, CY Li, ZC Wang, HP Zhang, PZ Zhang, DW Zheng, WJ Zheng, WH Craddock, KE Dayem, AR Duvall, BG Hough, RO Lease, JD Champagnac, DW Burbank, MK Clark, KA Farley, CN Garzione, E Kirby, P Molnar and GH Roe (2013), The growth of northeastern Tibet and its relevance to large-scale continental geodynamics: A review of recent studies. Tectonics Version: 1 32 (5) 1358-1370, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 256JH, doi: 10.1002/tect.20081
  • Zheng, WJ, PZ Zhang, WP Ge, P Molnar, HP Zhang, DY Yuan and JH Liu (2013), Late Quaternary slip rate of the South Heli Shan Fault (northern Hexi Corridor, NW China) and its implications for northeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics Version: 1 32 (2) 271-293, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 152IP, doi: 10.1002/tect.20022
  • Ischuk, A, R Bendick, A Rybin, P Molnar, SF Khan, S Kuzikov, S Mohadjer, U Saydullaev, Z Ilyasova, G Schelochkov and AV Zubovich (2013), Kinematics of the Pamir and Hindu Kush regions from GPS geodesy. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 118 (5) 2408-2416, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 256HH, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50185
  • Zheng, WJ, HP Zhang, PZ Zhang, P Molnar, XW Liu and DY Yuan (2013), Late Quaternary slip rates of the thrust faults in western Hexi Corridor (Northern Qilian Shan, China) and their implications for northeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Geosphere Version: 1 9 (2) 342-354, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 168JH, doi: 10.1130/GES00775.1
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2013), Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric dynamics, surface topography at convergent mountain belts, and gravity anomalies. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 118 (5) 2544-2557, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 256HH, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50203
  • Molnar, P and B Rajagopalan (2012), Late Miocene upward and outward growth of eastern Tibet and decreasing monsoon rainfall over the northwestern Indian subcontinent since similar to 10 Ma. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L09702, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 937RE, doi: 10.1029/2012GL051305
  • Champagnac, JD, P Molnar, C Sue and F Herman (2012), Tectonics, climate, and mountain topography. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 117 , Art. No. B02403, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 899OW, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008348
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2012), Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature variability and predictability of rainfall in the early and late parts of the Indian summer monsoon season. Clim. Dyn. Version: 1 39 (6) 1543-1557, issn: 0930-7575, ids: 005AO, doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1194-y
  • Molnar, P (2012), Isostasy can't be ignored. Nat. Geosci. Version: 1 5 (2) 83-83, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 893ZU, doi: 10.1038/ngeo1383
  • Zhang, HP, WH Craddock, RO Lease, WT Wang, DY Yuan, PZ Zhang, P Molnar, DW Zheng and WJ Zheng (2012), Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. Basin Res. Version: 1 24 (1) 31-50, issn: 0950-091X, ids: 873XG, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2117.2011.00512.x
  • Perez, OJ, R Bilham, M Sequera, L Molina, P Gavotti, H Codallo, C Moncayo, C Rodriguez, R Velandia, M Guzman and P Molnar (2011), GPS DERIVED VELOCITY FIELD IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: DEXTRAL SHEAR COMPONENT ASSOCIATED TO THE BOCONO FAULT AND CONVERGENT COMPONENT NORMAL TO THE ANDES. Interciencia Version: 1 36 (1) 39-44, issn: 0378-1844, ids: 711DV
  • Molnar, P and T Rautian (2011), Harry Fielding Reid Medal Citation for Tatyana Glebovna Rautian. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 82 (5) 700-702, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 815JX
  • Yuan, DY, JD Champagnac, WP Ge, P Molnar, PZ Zhang, WJ Zheng, HP Zhang and XW Liu (2011), Late Quaternary right-lateral slip rates of faults adjacent to the lake Qinghai, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 123 (10-Sep) 2016-2030, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 799KR, doi: 10.1130/B30315.1
  • Collins, JA, P Molnar and AF Sheehan (2011), Multibeam bathymetric surveys of submarine volcanoes and mega-pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys. Version: 1 54 (3) 329-339, issn: 0028-8306, ids: 880QM, doi: 10.1080/00288306.2011.589860
  • Molnar, P (2011), Jack Oliver (1923-2011) OBITUARY. Nat. Version: 1 470 (7333) 176-176, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 718RQ, doi: 10.1038/470176a
  • Duret, F, NM Shapiro, Z Cao, V Levin, P Molnar and S Roecker (2010), Surface wave dispersion across Tibet: Direct evidence for radial anisotropy in the crust. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L16306, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 644WN, doi: 10.1029/2010GL043811
  • Beavan, J, P Denys, M Denham, B Hager, T Herring and P Molnar (2010), Distribution of present-day vertical deformation across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from 10 years of GPS data. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L16305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 641OR, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044165
  • Molnar, P (2010), Deuterium and oxygen isotopes, paleoelevations of the Sierra Nevada, and Cenozoic climate. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 122 (8-Jul) 1106-1115, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 605MI, doi: 10.1130/B30001.1
  • Dayem, KE, P Molnar, DS Battisti and GH Roe (2010), Lessons learned from oxygen isotopes in modern precipitation applied to interpretation of speleothem records of paleoclimate from eastern Asia. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 295 (2-Jan) 219-230, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 613JD, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.04.003
  • Zubovich, AV, XQ Wang, YG Scherba, GG Schelochkov, R Reilinger, C Reigber, OI Mosienko, P Molnar, W Michajljow, VI Makarov, J Li, SI Kuzikov, TA Herring, MW Hamburger, BH Hager, YM Dang, VD Bragin and RT Beisenbaev (2010), GPS velocity field for the Tien Shan and surrounding regions. Tectonics Version: 1 29 , Art. No. TC6014, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 699CA, doi: 10.1029/2010TC002772
  • Molnar, P and KE Dayem (2010), Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere Version: 1 6 (4) 444-467, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 642GW, doi: 10.1130/GES00519.1
  • Harig, C, P Molnar and GA Houseman (2010), Lithospheric thinning and localization of deformation during Rayleigh-Taylor instability with nonlinear rheology and implications for intracontinental magmatism. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 115 , Art. No. B02205, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 558ZY, doi: 10.1029/2009JB006422
  • Molnar, P, WR Boos and DS Battisti (2010), Orographic Controls on Climate and Paleoclimate of Asia: Thermal and Mechanical Roles for the Tibetan Plateau. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Version: 1 38 77-102, Ed. Jeanloz, R; Freeman, KH, issn: 0084-6597, ids: BPF37, isbn: 978-0-8243-2038-6, doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152456
  • Mohadjer, S, R Bendick, A Ischuk, S Kuzikov, A Kostuk, U Saydullaev, S Lodi, DM Kakar, A Wasy, MA Khan, P Molnar, R Bilham and AV Zubovich (2010), Partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence in the Pamir-Hindu Kush from GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L04305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 562FO, doi: 10.1029/2009GL041737
  • Champagnac, JD, DY Yuan, WP Ge, P Molnar and WJ Zheng (2010), Slip rate at the north-eastern front of the Qilian Shan, China. Terr. Nova Version: 1 22 (3) 180-187, issn: 0954-4879, ids: 595KM, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2010.00932.x
  • Dayem, KE, GA Houseman and P Molnar (2009), Localization of shear along a lithospheric strength discontinuity: Application of a continuous deformation model to the boundary between Tibet and the Tarim Basin. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC3002, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 449YQ, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002264
  • Jochum, M, B Fox-Kemper, PH Molnar and C Shields (2009), Differences in the Indonesian seaway in a coupled climate model and their relevance to Pliocene climate and El Nino. Paleoceanography Version: 1 24 , Art. No. PA1212, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 426DG, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001678
  • Molnar, P and JM Stock (2009), Slowing of India's convergence with Eurasia since 20 Ma and its implications for Tibetan mantle dynamics. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC3001, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 446EX, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002271
  • Dayem, KE, P Molnar, MK Clark and GA Houseman (2009), Far-field lithospheric deformation in Tibet during continental collision. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC6005, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 528LU, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002344
  • Harig, C, P Molnar and GA Houseman (2008), Rayleigh-Taylor instability under a shear stress free top boundary condition and its relevance to removal of mantle lithosphere from beneath the Sierra Nevada. Tectonics Version: 1 27 (6) , Art. No. TC6019, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 390PH, doi: 10.1029/2007TC002241
  • Burov, EB and R Molnar (2008), Small and large-amplitude gravitational instability of an elastically compressible viscoelastic Maxwell solid overlying an inviscid incompressible fluid: Dependence of growth rates on wave number and elastic constants at low Deborah numbers. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 275 (4-Mar) 370-381, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 380SB, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.08.032
  • Molnar, P (2008), Closing of the Central American Seaway and the ice age: A critical review. Paleoceanography Version: 1 23 (1) , Art. No. PA2201, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 289UM, doi: 10.1029/2007PA001574
  • England, PC, P Molnar and FM Richter (2007), Kelvin, Perry and the age of the earth. Am. Scientist Version: 1 95 (4) 342-349, issn: 0003-0996, ids: 176WU, doi: 10.1511/2007.66.342
  • Molnar, P and MA Cane (2007), Early pliocene (pre-Ice Age) El Nino-like global climate: Which El Nino?. Geosphere Version: 1 3 (5) 337-365, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 240HA, doi: 10.1130/GES00103.1
  • Zhang, PZ, P Molnar and XW Xu (2007), Late Quaternary and present-day rates of slip along the Altyn Tagh Fault, northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics Version: 1 26 (5) , Art. No. TC5010, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 218XB, doi: 10.1029/2006TC002014
  • Huybers, P and P Molnar (2007), Tropical cooling and the onset of North American glaciation. Clim. Past. Version: 1 3 (3) 549-557, issn: 1814-9324, ids: 215CJ
  • Molnar, P (2007), An examination of evidence used to infer late cenozoic "Uplift" of mountain belts and other high terrain: What scientific question does such evidence pose?. J. Geol. Soc. India Version: 1 National Workshop on Sahyadri - Evolution and Erosional Processes 70 (3) 395-410, Bangalore, INDIA, MAY, 2005, issn: 0016-7622, ids: 231EH
  • Molnar, P, RS Anderson and SP Anderson (2007), Tectonics, fracturing of rock, and erosion. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 112 (F3) , Art. No. F03014, issn: 2169-9003, ids: 202AM, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000433
  • Molnar, P and CN Garzione (2007), Bounds on the viscosity coefficient of continental lithosphere from removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. Tectonics Version: 1 26 (2) , Art. No. TC2013, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 163GL, doi: 10.1029/2006TC001964
  • Champagnac, JD, P Molnar, RS Anderson, C Sue and B Delacou (2007), Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geol. Version: 1 35 (3) 195-198, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 184FY, doi: 10.1130/G23053A.1
  • Dayem, KE, DC Noone and P Molnar (2007), Tropical western Pacific warm pool and maritime continent precipitation rates and their contrasting relationships with the Walker Circulation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D6) , Art. No. D06101, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 147QM, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007870
  • Jaupart, C, P Molnar and E Cottrell (2007), Instability of a chemically dense layer heated from below and overlain by a deep less viscous fluid. J. Fluid Mech. Version: 1 572 433-469, issn: 0022-1120, ids: 139MA, doi: 10.1017/S0022112006003521
  • Schuerch, P, AL Densmore, BW McArdell and P Molnar (2006), The influence of landsliding on sediment supply and channel change in a steep mountain catchment. Geomorphology Version: 1 78 (4-Mar) 222-235
  • Molnar, P (2006), On geometrical scaling of Cayley trees and river networks. J. Hydrol. Version: 1 322 (4-Jan) 199-210
  • Garzione, CN, P Molnar, JC Libarkin and BJ MacFadden (2006), Rapid late Miocene rise of the Bolivian Altiplano: Evidence for removal of mantle lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 241 (4-Mar) 543-556, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 011SS, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.026
  • Anderson, RS, P Molnar and MA Kessler (2006), Features of glacial valley profiles simply explained. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 111 (F1) , Art. No. F01004, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 010BI, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000344
  • Molnar, P, GA Houseman and PC England (2006), Earth science - Palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nat. Version: 1 444 (7117) E4-E4, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 105GL, doi: 10.1038/nature05368, PubMed ID: 17099703
  • Molnar, P, RS Anderson, G Kier and J Rose (2006), Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate, bed load transport, and river incision. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 111 (F2) , Art. No. F02001, issn: 2169-9003, ids: 039DU, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000310
  • England, P and P Molnar (2005), Late Quaternary to decadal velocity fields in Asia. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 110 (B12) , Art. No. B12401, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 997MO, doi: 10.1029/2004JB003541
  • Hilley, GE, R Burgmann, PZ Zhang and P Molnar (2005), Bayesian inference of plastosphere viscosities near the Kunlun Fault, northern Tibet. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 32 (1) , Art. No. L01302, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 890KQ, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021658
  • Birsan, MV, P Molnar, P Burlando and M Pfaundler (2005), Streamflow trends in Switzerland. J. Hydrol. Version: 1 314 (4-Jan) 312-329
  • Molnar, P (2005), Mio-pliocene growth of the Tibetan Plateau and evolution of East Asian climate. Palaeontol. electron. Version: 1 8 (1) , Art. No. 2A, issn: 1094-8074, ids: 018WW
  • Jade, S, BC Bhatt, Z Yang, R Bendick, VK Gaur, P Molnar, MB Anand and D Kumar (2004), GPS measurements from the Ladakh Himalaya, India: Preliminary tests of plate-like or continuous deformation in Tibet. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 116 (12-Nov) 1385-1391, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 869TH, doi: 10.1130/B25357.1
  • Molnar, P and CH Jones (2004), A test of laboratory based rheological parameters of olivine from an analysis of late Cenozoic convective removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 156 (3) 555-564, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 777VM, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02138.x
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2004), The effects of buoyant crust on the gravitational instability of thickened mantle lithosphere at zones of intracontinental convergence. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 158 (3) 1134-1150, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 848LY, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02312.x
  • Shapiro, NM, MH Ritzwoller, P Molnar and V Levin (2004), Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy. Sci. Version: 1 305 (5681) 233-236, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 835QQ, doi: 10.1126/science.1098276, PubMed ID: 15247475
  • Wilson, CK, CH Jones, P Molnar, AF Sheehan and OS Boyd (2004), Distributed deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath a continental strike-slip fault zone: Marlborough fault system, South Island, New Zealand. Geol. Version: 1 32 (10) 837-840, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 861LD, doi: 10.1130/G20657.1
  • Zhang, PZ, Z Shen, M Wang, WJ Gan, R Burgmann and P Molnar (2004), Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data. Geol. Version: 1 32 (9) 809-812, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 851PG, doi: 10.1130/G20554.1
  • Molnar, P (2004), Interactions among topographically induced elastic stress, static fatigue, and valley incision. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 109 (F2) , Art. No. F02010, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 863OT, doi: 10.1029/2003JF000097
  • Cottrell, E, C Jaupart and P Molnar (2004), Marginal stability of thick continental lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (18) , Art. No. L18612, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 861HZ, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020332
  • Molnar, P (2004), Late cenozoic increase in accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment: How might climate change have affected erosion rates?. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Version: 1 32 67-89, issn: 0084-6597, ids: 825JI, doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.32.091003.143456
  • Gilbert, HJ, AF Sheehan, KG Dueker and P Molnar (2003), Receiver functions in the western United States, with implications for upper mantle structure and dynamics. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 108 (B5) , Art. No. 2229, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 678KB, doi: 10.1029/2001JB001194
  • Brown, ET, R Bendick, DL Bourles, V Gaur, P Molnar, GM Raisbeck and F Yiou (2003), Early Holocene climate recorded in geomorphological features in Western Tibet. Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. Version: 1 199 (2-Jan) 141-151, issn: 0031-0182, ids: 727YA, doi: 10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00501-7
  • Brown, ET, R Bendick, DL Bourles, V Gaur, P Molnar, GM Raisbeck and F Yiou (2002), Slip rates of the Karakorum fault, Ladakh, India, determined using cosmic ray exposure dating of debris flows and moraines. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 107 (B9) , Art. No. 2192, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 634WU, doi: 10.1029/2000JB000100
  • Scherwath, M, T Stern, A Melhuish and P Molnar (2002), Pn anisotropy and distributed upper mantle deformation associated with a continental transform fault. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 29 (8) , Art. No. 1175, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 609DF, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014179
  • Molnar, P and MA Cane (2002), El Nino's tropical climate and teleconnections as a blueprint for pre-Ice Age climates. Paleoceanography Version: 1 17 (2) , Art. No. 1021, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 610BE, doi: 10.1029/2001PA000663
  • Molnar, P and JA Ramirez (2002), On downstream hydraulic geometry and optimal energy expenditure: case study of the Ashley and Taieri Rivers. J. Hydrol. Version: 1 259 (4-Jan) 105-115, issn: 0022-1694, ids: 523JL
  • Molnar, P (2001), Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates. Geol. Version: 1 29 (12) 1071-1074, issn: 0016-8505, ids: 501DG, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<1071:CCFIAE>2.0.CO;2
  • Von Herzen, R, C Ruppel, P Molnar, M Nettles, S Nagihara and G Ekstrom (2001), A constraint on the shear stress at the Pacific-Australian plate boundary from heat flow and seismicity at the Kermadec forearc. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 106 (B4) 6817-6833
  • Hallet, B and P Molnar (2001), Distorted drainage basins as markers of crustal strain east of the Himalaya. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 106 (B7) 13697-13709
  • Zhang, PZ, P Molnar and WR Downs (2001), Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2-4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates. Nat. Version: 1 410 (6831) 891-897, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 423AG
  • Cane, MA and P Molnar (2001), Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridircation around 3-4 million years ago. Nat. Version: 1 411 (6834) 157-162, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 430FC, doi: 10.1038/35075500, PubMed ID: 11346785
  • Molnar, P, T Stern and GA Houseman (2001), Thickening of mantle lithosphere beneath New Zealand and the role of buoyant crust in this process. Geol. Geofiz. Version: 1 42 (10) 1497-1503
  • Abdrakhmatov, KE, R Weldon, S Thompson, D Burbank, C Rubin, M Miller and P Molnar (2001), Origin, direction, and rate of modern compression of the central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). Geol. Geofiz. Version: 1 42 (10) 1585-1609
  • Molnar, P and S Ghose (2000), Seismic moments of major earthquakes and the rate of shortening across the Tien Shan. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 27 (16) 2377-2380
  • Stern, T, P Molnar, D Okaya and D Eberhart-Phillips (2000), Teleseismic P wave delays and modes of shortening the mantle lithosphere beneath South Island, New Zealand. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 105 (B9) 21615-21631
  • Conrad, CP and P Molnar (1999), Convective instability of a boundary layer with temperature- and strain-rate-dependent viscosity in terms of 'available buoyancy'. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 139 (1) 51-68
  • Forest, CE, JA Wolfe, P Molnar and KA Emanuel (1999), Paleoaltimetry incorporating atmospheric physics and botanical estimates of paleoclimate. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 111 (4) 497-511
  • Molnar, P and KA Emanuel (1999), Temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium above surfaces at different heights. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D20) 24265-24271, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 249KN, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900485
  • Molnar, P, GA Houseman and CP Conrad (1998), Rayleigh-Taylor instability and convective thinning of mechanically thickened lithosphere: effects of non-linear viscosity decreasing exponentially with depth and of horizontal shortening of the layer. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 133 (3) 568-584
  • Burov, EB and P Molnar (1998), Gravity anomalies over the Ferghana Valley (central Asia) and intracontinental deformation. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 103 (B8) 18137-18152
  • Brown, ET, DL Bourles, BC Burchfiel, QD Deng, J Li, P Molnar, GM Raisbeck and F Yiou (1998), Estimation of slip rates in the southern Tien Shan using cosmic ray exposure dates of abandoned alluvial fans. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 110 (3) 377-386
  • Conrad, CP and P Molnar (1997), The growth of Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities in the lithosphere for various rheological and density structures. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 129 (1) 95-112
  • Molnar, P (1997), The rise of the Tibetan plateau: From mantle dynamics to the Indian monsoon. Astron. Geophys. Version: 1 38 (3) 10-15
  • Molnar, P and JM Gipson (1996), A bound on the rheology of continental lithosphere using very long baseline interferometry: The velocity of south China with respect to Eurasia. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 101 (B1) 545-553
  • Burtman, VS, SF Skobelev and P Molnar (1996), Late cenozoic slip on the Talas-Ferghana fault, the Tien Shan, central Asia. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 108 (8) 1004-1021
  • WOODWARD, RL and P MOLNAR (1995), LATERAL HETEROGENEITY IN THE UPPER-MANTLE AND SS-S TRAVEL-TIME INTERVALS FOR SS-RAYS REFLECTED FROM THE TIBETAN PLATEAU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 135 (4-Jan) 139-148
  • MOLNAR, P and P ENGLAND (1995), TEMPERATURES IN ZONES OF STEADY-STATE UNDERTHRUSTING OF YOUNG OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 131 (2-Jan) 57-70
  • BURCHFIEL, BC, P MOLNAR, P ZHANG, Q DENG, W ZHANG and Y WANG (1995), EXAMPLE OF A SUPRADETACHMENT BASIN WITHIN A PULL-APART TECTONIC SETTING - MORMON-POINT, DEATH-VALLEY, CALIFORNIA. Basin Res. Version: 1 7 (2) 199-&
  • Martinod, J and P Molnar (1995), Lithospheric folding in the Indian Ocean and the rheology of the oceanic plate. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. Version: 1 166 (6) 813-821
  • MOLNAR, P and JM GIPSON (1994), VERY LONG-BASE-LINE INTERFEROMETRY AND ACTIVE ROTATIONS OF CRUSTAL BLOCKS IN THE WESTERN TRANSVERSE RANGES, CALIFORNIA. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 106 (5) 594-606
  • ENGLAND, P and P MOLNAR (1993), THE INTERPRETATION OF INVERTED METAMORPHIC ISOGRADS USING SIMPLE PHYSICAL CALCULATIONS. Tectonics Version: 1 12 (1) 145-157
  • ENGLAND, P, P LEFORT, P MOLNAR and A PECHER (1992), HEAT-SOURCES FOR TERTIARY METAMORPHISM AND ANATEXIS IN THE ANNAPURNA-MANASLU REGION CENTRAL NEPAL. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 97 (B2) 2107-2128
  • CHATELAIN, JL, P MOLNAR, R PREVOT and B ISACKS (1992), DETACHMENT OF PART OF THE DOWNGOING SLAB AND UPLIFT OF THE NEW HEBRIDES (VANUATU) ISLANDS. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 19 (14) 1507-1510
  • MENARD, G, P MOLNAR and JP PLATT (1991), BUDGET OF CRUSTAL SHORTENING AND SUBDUCTION OF CONTINENTAL-CRUST IN THE ALPS. Tectonics Version: 1 10 (2) 231-244
  • PANDEY, MR, SW ROECKER and P MOLNAR (1991), P-WAVE RESIDUALS AT STATIONS IN NEPAL - EVIDENCE FOR A HIGH-VELOCITY REGION BENEATH THE KARAKORAM. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 18 (10) 1909-1912
  • ZHANG, PZ, BC BURCHFIEL, P MOLNAR, WQ ZHANG, DC JIAO, QD DENG, YP WANG, L ROYDEN and FM SONG (1991), AMOUNT AND STYLE OF LATE CENOZOIC DEFORMATION IN THE LIUPAN SHAN AREA, NINGXIA AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA. Tectonics Version: 1 10 (6) 1111-1129
  • BURCHFIEL, BC, PZ ZHANG, YP WANG, WQ ZHANG, FM SONG, QD DENG, P MOLNAR and L ROYDEN (1991), GEOLOGY OF THE HAIYUAN FAULT ZONE, NINGXIA-HUI AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA, AND ITS RELATION TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE NORTHEASTERN MARGIN OF THE TIBETAN PLATEAU. Tectonics Version: 1 10 (6) 1091-1110
  • CHANG, T, J STOCK and P MOLNAR (1990), THE ROTATION GROUP IN PLATE-TECTONICS AND THE REPRESENTATION OF UNCERTAINTIES OF PLATE RECONSTRUCTIONS. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 101 (3) 649-661
  • CHEN, WP and P MOLNAR (1990), SOURCE PARAMETERS OF EARTHQUAKES AND INTRAPLATE DEFORMATION BENEATH THE SHILLONG PLATEAU AND THE NORTHERN INDOBURMAN RANGES. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 95 (B8) 12527-12552
  • ZHANG, PZ, BC BURCHFIEL, P MOLNAR, WQ ZHANG, DC JIAO, QD DENG, YP WANG, L ROYDEN and FM SONG (1990), LATE CENOZOIC TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE NINGXIA-HUI AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 102 (11) 1484-1498
  • MOLNAR, P and P ENGLAND (1990), TEMPERATURES, HEAT-FLUX, AND FRICTIONAL STRESS NEAR MAJOR THRUST FAULTS. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 95 (B4) 4833-4856
  • MOLNAR, P (1990), S-WAVE RESIDUALS FROM EARTHQUAKES IN THE TIBETAN REGION AND LATERAL VARIATIONS IN THE UPPER MANTLE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 101 (1) 68-77
  • BUROV, EV, MG KOGAN, H LYONCAEN and P MOLNAR (1990), GRAVITY-ANOMALIES, THE DEEP-STRUCTURE, AND DYNAMIC PROCESSES BENEATH THE TIEN-SHAN. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 96 (4-Mar) 367-383
  • JACKSON, J and P MOLNAR (1990), ACTIVE FAULTING AND BLOCK ROTATIONS IN THE WESTERN TRANSVERSE RANGES, CALIFORNIA. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 95 (B13) 22073-22087
  • SUAREZ, G, J GAGNEPAIN, A CISTERNAS, D HATZFELD, P MOLNAR, L OCOLA, SW ROECKER and JP VIODE (1990), TECTONIC DEFORMATION OF THE ANDES AND THE CONFIGURATION OF THE SUBDUCTED SLAB IN CENTRAL PERU - RESULTS FROM A MICROSEISMIC EXPERIMENT. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 103 (1) 1-12
  • MOLNAR, P and H LYONCAEN (1989), FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF EARTHQUAKES AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF THE TIBETAN PLATEAU AND ITS MARGINS. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 99 (1) 123-153
  • MOLNAR, P and MR PANDEY (1989), RUPTURE ZONES OF GREAT EARTHQUAKES IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.-Earth Planet. Sci Version: 1 98 (1) 61-70
  • LYONCAEN, H and P MOLNAR (1989), CONSTRAINTS ON THE DEEP-STRUCTURE AND DYNAMIC PROCESSES BENEATH THE ALPS AND ADJACENT REGIONS FROM AN ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY-ANOMALIES. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 99 (1) 19-32
  • BURCHFIEL, BC, P MOLNAR, ZY ZHAO, K LIANG, SJ WANG, MM HUANG and J SUTTER (1989), GEOLOGY OF THE ULUGH-MUZTAGH AREA, NORTHERN TIBET. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 94 (2-Jan) 57-70
  • PEIZHEN, Z, P MOLNAR, BC BURCHFIEL, L ROYDEN, YP WANG, QD DENG, FM SONG, WQ ZHANG and DC JIAO (1988), BOUNDS ON THE HOLOCENE SLIP RATE OF THE HAIYUAN FAULT, NORTH-CENTRAL CHINA. Quat. Res. Version: 1 30 (2) 151-164
  • ROSA, JWC and P MOLNAR (1988), UNCERTAINTIES IN RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE PACIFIC, FARALLON, VANCOUVER, AND KULA PLATES AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE RIGIDITY OF THE PACIFIC AND FARALLON (AND VANCOUVER) PLATES BETWEEN 72 AND 35 MA. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 93 (B4) 2997-3008
  • STOCK, J and P MOLNAR (1988), UNCERTAINTIES AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE LATE CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY POSITION OF NORTH-AMERICA RELATIVE TO THE FARALLON, KULA, AND PACIFIC PLATES. Tectonics Version: 1 7 (6) 1339-1384
  • ZHANG, WQ, DC JIAO, PZ ZHANG, P MOLNAR, BC BURCHFIEL, QD DENG, YP WANG and FM SONG (1987), DISPLACEMENT ALONG THE HAIYUAN FAULT ASSOCIATED WITH THE GREAT 1920 HAIYUAN, CHINA, EARTHQUAKE. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 77 (1) 117-131
  • MOLNAR, P (1987), THE DISTRIBUTION OF INTENSITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE 1905 KANGRA EARTHQUAKE AND BOUNDS ON THE EXTENT OF THE RUPTURE ZONE. J. Geol. Soc. India Version: 1 29 (2) 221-229
  • MOLNAR, P (1987), THE DISTRIBUTION OF INTENSITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE GREAT 1897 ASSAM EARTHQUAKE AND BOUNDS ON THE EXTENT OF THE RUPTURE ZONE. J. Geol. Soc. India Version: 1 30 (1) 13-27
  • PARDOCASAS, F and P MOLNAR (1987), RELATIVE MOTION OF THE NAZCA (FARALLON) AND SOUTH-AMERICAN PLATES SINCE LATE CRETACEOUS TIME. Tectonics Version: 1 6 (3) 233-248
  • NELSON, MR, R MCCAFFREY and P MOLNAR (1987), SOURCE PARAMETERS FOR 11 EARTHQUAKES IN THE TIEN-SHAN, CENTRAL-ASIA, DETERMINED BY P AND SH WAVE-FORM INVERSION. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 92 (B12) 12629-12648
  • MOLNAR, P (1987), INVERSION OF PROFILES OF UPLIFT RATES FOR THE GEOMETRY OF DIP-SLIP FAULTS AT DEPTH, WITH EXAMPLES FROM THE ALPS AND THE HIMILAYA. ANN GEOPHYS B-TERR PLANET PH Version: 1 5 (6) 663-670
  • MOLNAR, P (1985), A GEOPHYSICAL-STUDY OF MESQUITE VALLEY - NEVADA-CALIFORNIA BORDER. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 90 (NB10) 8685-8689
  • MCCAFFREY, R, P MOLNAR, SW ROECKER and YS JOYODIWIRYO (1985), MICROEARTHQUAKE SEISMICITY AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS RELATED TO ARC-CONTINENT COLLISION IN THE EASTERN SUNDA ARC, INDONESIA. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 90 (NB6) 4511-4528
  • LYONCAEN, H, P MOLNAR and G SUAREZ (1985), GRAVITY-ANOMALIES AND FLEXURE OF THE BRAZILIAN SHIELD BENEATH THE BOLIVIAN ANDES. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 75 (1) 81-92
  • MOLNAR, P and JM STOCK (1985), A METHOD FOR BOUNDING UNCERTAINTIES IN COMBINED PLATE RECONSTRUCTIONS. J GEOPHYS RES-SOLID EARTH PL Version: 1 90 (B14) 2537-2544
  • LYONCAEN, H and P MOLNAR (1985), GRAVITY-ANOMALIES, FLEXURE OF THE INDIAN PLATE, AND THE STRUCTURE, SUPPORT AND EVOLUTION OF THE HIMALAYA AND GANGA BASIN. Tectonics Version: 1 4 (6) 513-538
  • LEDAIN, AY, P TAPPONNIER and P MOLNAR (1984), ACTIVE FAULTING AND TECTONICS OF BURMA AND SURROUNDING REGIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB1) 453-472
  • GRANGE, F, P CUNNINGHAM, J GAGNEPAIN, D HATZFELD, P MOLNAR, L OCOLA, A RODRIGUES, SW ROECKER, JM STOCK and G SUAREZ (1984), THE CONFIGURATION OF THE SEISMIC ZONE AND THE DOWNGOING SLAB IN SOUTHERN PERU. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 11 (1) 38-41
  • BARANOWSKI, J, J ARMBRUSTER, L SEEBER and P MOLNAR (1984), FOCAL DEPTHS AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF EARTHQUAKES AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF THE HIMALAYA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB8) 6918-6928
  • MOLNAR, P and QD DENQ (1984), FAULTING ASSOCIATED WITH LARGE EARTHQUAKES AND THE AVERAGE RATE OF DEFORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN ASIA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB7) 6203-6227
  • MOLNAR, P and WP CHEN (1984), S-P WAVE TRAVEL TIME RESIDUALS AND LATERAL INHOMOGENEITY IN THE MANTLE BENEATH TIBET AND THE HIMALAYA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB8) 6911-6917
  • GRANGE, F, D HATZFELD, P CUNNINGHAM, P MOLNAR, SW ROECKER, G SUAREZ, A RODRIGUES and L OCOLA (1984), TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE MICROEARTHQUAKE SEISMICITY AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS IN SOUTHERN PERU. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB7) 6139-6152
  • LYONCAEN, H and P MOLNAR (1984), GRAVITY-ANOMALIES AND THE STRUCTURE OF WESTERN TIBET AND THE SOUTHERN TARIM BASIN. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 11 (12) 1251-1254
  • DENG, QD, FM SUNG, SL ZHU, ML LI, TL WANG, WQ ZHANG, BC BURCHFIEL, P MOLNAR and PZ ZHANG (1984), ACTIVE FAULTING AND TECTONICS OF THE NINGXIA-HUI AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 89 (NB6) 4427-4445
  • MOLNAR, P and WP CHEN (1983), FOCAL DEPTHS AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF EARTHQUAKES UNDER THE TIBETAN PLATEAU. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB2) 1180-1196
  • CHEN, WP and P MOLNAR (1983), FOCAL DEPTHS OF INTRACONTINENTAL AND INTRAPLATE EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF THE LITHOSPHERE. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB5) 4183-4214
  • MOLNAR, P (1983), AVERAGE REGIONAL STRAIN DUE TO SLIP ON NUMEROUS FAULTS OF DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB8) 6430-6432
  • MOLNAR, P, WP CHEN and E PADOVANI (1983), CALCULATED TEMPERATURES IN OVERTHRUST TERRAINS AND POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF HEAT-SOURCES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TERTIARY GRANITES IN THE GREATER HIMALAYA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB8) 6415-6429
  • LYONCAEN, H and P MOLNAR (1983), CONSTRAINTS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE HIMALAYA FROM AN ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY-ANOMALIES AND A FLEXURAL MODEL OF THE LITHOSPHERE. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB10) 8171-8191
  • SUAREZ, G, P MOLNAR and BC BURCHFIEL (1983), SEISMICITY, FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS, DEPTH OF FAULTING, AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF THE ANDES OF PERU, ECUADOR, AND SOUTHERN COLOMBIA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 88 (NB12) 403-428
  • KING, GCP, A TSELENTIS, J GOMBERG, P MOLNAR, SW ROECKER, H SINVHAL, C SOUFLERIS and JM STOCK (1983), MICROEARTHQUAKE SEISMICITY AND ACTIVE TECTONICS OF NORTHWESTERN GREECE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 66 (3-Jan) 279-288
  • STOCK, J and P MOLNAR (1982), UNCERTAINTIES IN THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF THE AUSTRALIA, ANTARCTICA, LORD-HOWE, AND PACIFIC PLATES SINCE THE LATE CRETACEOUS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 87 (NB6) 4697-4714
  • MOLNAR, P and P TAPPONNIER (1981), A POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE OF TECTONIC STRENGTH ON THE AGE OF THE CRUST IN ASIA. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 52 (1) 107-114
  • HOUSEMAN, GA, DP MCKENZIE and P MOLNAR (1981), CONVECTIVE INSTABILITY OF A THICKENED BOUNDARY-LAYER AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTAL CONVERGENT BELTS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 86 (NB7) 6115-6132
  • CHEN, WP and P MOLNAR (1981), CONSTRAINTS ON THE SEISMIC-WAVE VELOCITY STRUCTURE BENEATH THE TIBETAN PLATEAU AND THEIR TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 86 (NB7) 5937-5962
  • DALMAYRAC, B and P MOLNAR (1981), PARALLEL THRUST AND NORMAL FAULTING IN PERU AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE STATE OF STRESS. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 55 (3) 473-481
  • CHEN, WP, JL NABELEK, TJ FITCH and P MOLNAR (1981), AN INTERMEDIATE DEPTH EARTHQUAKE BENEATH TIBET - SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EVENT OF SEPTEMBER 14, 1976. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 86 (NB4) 2863-2876
  • CHEN, CY, WP CHEN and P MOLNAR (1980), THE UPPERMOST MANTLE P-WAVE VELOCITIES BENEATH TURKEY AND IRAN. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 7 (1) 77-80
  • CHATELAIN, JL, SW ROECKER, D HATZFELD and P MOLNAR (1980), MICRO-EARTHQUAKE SEISMICITY AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS IN THE HINDU KUSH REGION AND THEIR TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 85 (NB3) 1365-1387
  • ROECKER, SW, OV SOBOLEVA, IL NERSESOV, AA LUKK, D HATZFELD, JL CHATELAIN and P MOLNAR (1980), SEISMICITY AND FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF INTERMEDIATE DEPTH EARTHQUAKES IN THE PAMIR-HINDU KUSH REGION. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 85 (NB3) 1358-1364
  • PREVOT, R, D HATZFELD, SW ROECKER and P MOLNAR (1980), SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES AND ACTIVE TECTONICS IN EASTERN AFGHANISTAN. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 85 (NB3) 1347-1357
  • SUAREZ, G and P MOLNAR (1980), PALEOMAGNETIC DATA AND PELAGIC SEDIMENT FACIES AND THE MOTION OF THE PACIFIC PLATE RELATIVE TO THE SPIN AXIS SINCE THE LATE CRETACEOUS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 85 (NB10) 5257-5280
  • MOLNAR, P, D FREEDMAN and JSF SHIH (1979), LENGTHS OF INTERMEDIATE AND DEEP SEISMIC ZONES AND TEMPERATURES IN DOWNGOING SLABS OF LITHOSPHERE. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 56 (1) 41-54
  • JACKSON, J, P MOLNAR, H PATTON and T FITCH (1979), SEISMOTECTONIC ASPECTS OF THE MARKANSU VALLEY, TADJIKSTAN, EARTHQUAKE OF AUGUST 11, 1974. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 84 (NB11) 6157-6167
  • MOLNAR, P (1979), EARTHQUAKE RECURRENCE INTERVALS AND PLATE TECTONICS. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 69 (1) 115-133
  • TAPPONNIER, P and P MOLNAR (1979), ACTIVE FAULTING AND CENOZOIC TECTONICS OF THE TIEN SHAN, MONGOLIA, AND BAYKAL REGIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 84 (NB7) 3425-&
  • JONES, LM and P MOLNAR (1979), SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF FORESHOCKS AND THEIR POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP TO EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION AND PREMONITORY SLIP ON FAULTS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 84 (NB7) 3596-3608
  • MOLNAR, P and P TAPPONNIER (1978), ACTIVE TECTONICS OF TIBET. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 83 (NB11) 5361-&
  • MOLNAR, P and T ATWATER (1978), INTERARC SPREADING AND CORDILLERAN TECTONICS AS ALTERNATES RELATED TO AGE OF SUBDUCTED OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 41 (3) 330-340
  • RAUTIAN, TG, VI KHALTURIN, VG MARTYNOV and P MOLNAR (1978), PRELIMINARY-ANALYSIS OF SPECTRAL CONTENT OF P-WAVES AND S-WAVES FROM LOCAL EARTHQUAKES IN GARM, TADJIKISTAN REGION. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 68 (4) 949-971
  • RUZAIKIN, AI, IL NERSESOV, VI KHALTURIN and P MOLNAR (1977), PROPAGATION OF LG AND LATERAL VARIATIONS IN CRUSTAL STRUCTURE IN ASIA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 82 (2) 307-316
  • RALEIGH, B, P MOLNAR, T HANKS, A NUR, F WU, J SAVAGE, C SCHOLZ, H CRAIG, R TURNER and G BENNETT (1977), PREDICTION OF HAICHENG EARTHQUAKE. TRANS AMER GEOPHYS UNION Version: 1 58 (5) 236-272
  • CHEN, WP and P MOLNAR (1977), SEISMIC MOMENTS OF MAJOR EARTHQUAKES AND AVERAGE RATE OF SLIP IN CENTRAL ASIA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 82 (20) 2945-2969
  • TAPPONNIER, P and P MOLNAR (1977), ACTIVE FAULTING AND TECTONICS IN CHINA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 82 (20) 2905-&
  • BUNCE, ET and P MOLNAR (1977), SEISMIC-REFLECTION PROFILING AND BASEMENT TOPOGRAPHY IN SOMALI BASIN - POSSIBLE FRACTURE ZONES BETWEEN MADAGASCAR AND AFRICA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 82 (33) 5305-5311
  • MOLNAR, P (1977), GRAVITY ANOMALIES AND ORIGIN OF PUERTO-RICO TRENCH. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 51 (3) 701-708
  • MOLNAR, P and J FRANCHETEAU (1975), RELATIVE MOTION OF HOT SPOTS IN ATLANTIC AND INDIAN OCEANS DURING CENOZOIC. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 43 (3) 763-774
  • SHIH, J and P MOLNAR (1975), ANALYSIS AND IMPLICATIONS OF SEQUENCE OF RIDGE JUMPS THAT ELIMINATED SURVEYOR TRANSFORM FAULT. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 80 (35) 4815-4822
  • CHEN, WP and P MOLNAR (1975), SHORT-PERIOD RAYLEIGH-WAVE DISPERSION ACROSS TIBETAN PLATEAU. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 65 (5) 1051-1057
  • MOLNAR, P, T ATWATER, J MAMMERICKX and SM SMITH (1975), MAGNETIC-ANOMALIES, BATHYMETRY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF SOUTH PACIFIC SINCE LATE CRETACEOUS. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 40 (3) 383-&
  • MINSTER, JB, TH JORDAN, P MOLNAR and E HAINES (1974), NUMERICAL MODELING OF INSTANTANEOUS PLATE TECTONICS. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 36 (3) 541-576
  • ANDERSON, RN, DW FORSYTH, P MOLNAR and MAMMERIC.J (1974), FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF EARTHQUAKES ON NAZCA PLATE BOUNDARIES AND EASTER PLATE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 24 (2) 188-202
  • MOLNAR, P, BE TUCKER and JN BRUNE (1973), CORNER FREQUENCIES OF P AND S WAVES AND MODELS OF EARTHQUAKE SOURCES. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 63 (6) 2091-2104
  • MOLNAR, P, KH JACOB and K MCCAMY (1973), IMPLICATIONS OF ARCHAMBEAUS EARTHQUAKE SOURCE THEORY FOR SLIP ON FAULTS. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 63 (1) 101-104
  • MOLNAR, P (1973), FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF EARTHQUAKES AND DIRECTION OF MOTION IN GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND ON RIVERA FRACTURE ZONE. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 84 (5) 1651-1658
  • HUESTIS, S, P MOLNAR and J OLIVER (1973), REGIONAL SN VELOCITIES AND SHEAR VELOCITY IN UPPER MANTLE. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 63 (2) 469-475
  • MOLNAR, P, TJ FITCH and FT WU (1973), FAULT PLANE SOLUTIONS OF SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES AND CONTEMPORARY TECTONICS IN ASIA. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 19 (2) 101-112
  • JOHNSON, T and P MOLNAR (1972), FOCAL MECHANISMS AND PLATE TECTONICS OF SOUTHWEST PACIFIC. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 77 (26) 5000-&
  • WYSS, M and P MOLNAR (1972), EFFICIENCY, STRESS DROP, APPARENT STRESS, EFFECTIVE STRESS, AND FRICTIONAL STRESS OF DENVER, COLORADO, EARTHQUAKES. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 77 (8) 1433-&
  • SCHOLZ, C, P MOLNAR and T JOHNSON (1972), DETAILED STUDIES OF FRICTIONAL SLIDING OF GRANITE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARTHQUAKE MECHANISM. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 77 (32) 6392-&
  • MAASHA, N and P MOLNAR (1972), EARTHQUAKE FAULT PARAMETERS AND TECTONICS IN AFRICA. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 77 (29) 5731-&
  • SAVINO, J, LR SYKES, LIEBERMA.RC and P MOLNAR (1971), EXCITATION OF SEISMIC SURFACE WAVES WITH PERIODS OF 15 TO 70 SECONDS FOR EARTHQUAKES AND UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 76 (32) 8003-&
  • MOLNAR, P (1971), P-WAVE SPECTRA FROM UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS. GEOPHYS J ROY ASTRON SOC Version: 1 23 (3) 273-&
  • MOLNAR, P and YP AGGARWAL (1971), MICROEARTHQUAKE SURVEY IN KENYA. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 61 (1) 195-&
  • FITCH, TJ and P MOLNAR (1970), FOCAL MECHANISMS ALONG INCLINED EARTHQUAKE ZONES IN INDONESIA-PHILIPPINE REGION. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 75 (8) 1431-&
  • MOLNAR, P and LR SYKES (1969), TECTONICS CARIBBEAN AND MIDDLE AMERICA REGIONS FROM FOCAL MECHANISMS AND SEISMICITY. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 80 (9) 1639-&
  • MOLNAR, P and J OLIVER (1969), LATERAL VARIATIONS OF ATTENUATION IN UPPER MANTLE AND DISCONTINUITIES IN LITHOSPHERE. J GEOPHYS RES Version: 1 74 (10) 2648-&
  • MOLNAR, P, K JACOB and LR SYKES (1969), MICROEARTHQUAKE ACTIVITY IN EASTERN NEVADA AND DEATH VALLEY CALIFORNIA BEFORE AND AFTER NUCLEAR EXPLOSION BENHAM. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 59 (6) 2177-&